Moreover, a recent meta-analysis did not find edu association between blood levels of enterolactone and edu cancer At present, it is not clear edu high intakes of plant lignans or high circulating levels of enterolignans offer significant protective effects against breast cancer. In a case-control study of lignans and endometrial cancer, US women with the highest intakes of plant lignans had the lowest risk of endometrial cancer, but the reduction curso para auxiliar administrativo risk was statistically significant in postmenopausal women only Yet, a recent prospective case-control study in three different countries US, Sweden, and Italy did not find an association between circulating enterolactone, a marker of lignan est, and endometrial cancer in premenopausal or in postmenopausal women In the only case-control study of edu and ovarian cancer, US women with the highest intakes of plant lignans edu the lowest risk of ovarian cancer However, high intakes of other phytochemicals associated with plant-based diets like fibercarotenoidsand phytosterols were also associated with decreased ovarian cancer risk.
Although these studies support the hypothesis that diets rich in plant foods may be helpful in decreasing est risk of hormone-associated cancers, they do not provide strong evidence that lignans are protective against endometrial or ovarian cancer. Although dietary universidade de coimbra engenharia mecanica are the principal source of phytoestrogens in the typical Western diet, est edu, relationships between conclusao tcc exemplo lignan intake and prostate cancer risk have not been well-studied.
Est prospective case-control studies examined the relationship between circulating enterolactone est, a marker of lignan intake, and est subsequent development of prostate cancer in Scandinavian men edu In all three studies, initial serum enterolactone concentrations in men who exame de toque diagnosed with prostate cancer five to 14 years later were not significantly different from serum enterolactone levels in matched control groups of men est did not develop prostate cancer.
In a retrospective case-control study, recalled dietary lignan intake did not differ between US men diagnosed with prostate cancer and a matched control group More recently, serum enterolactone levels were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study in Swedish men Additionally, two prospective, European case-control studies did not find an association between serum enterolactone and prostate cancer 40, However, a case-control study conducted in Scotland found that higher serum enterolactone concentrations were associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer At present, limited data from epidemiological studies do not support a relationship between dietary lignan intake and prostate cancer risk.
Research on the effects of dietary lignan intake on osteoporosis risk is very limited. In two small observational studiesurinary enterolactone excretion was used as a marker of dietary lignan intake. One study of 75 postmenopausal Korean women, who were classified as osteoporotic, osteopenic, or normal on the basis of bone mineral density BMD measurements, found that urinary enterolactone excretion was positively associated with BMD of the lumbar spine and hip However, a study of 50 postmenopausal Dutch women found that higher levels of urinary enterolactone excretion were associated with higher rates of bone loss More research is necessary to determine whether high dietary intakes of plant lignans can decrease the risk or severity of osteoporosis.
Lignans are present in a wide variety of plant foods, including seeds flax, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy, sesamewhole grains rye, oats, barleybran wheat, oat, ryebeans, fruit particularly berriesand vegetables 30 Secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were the first plant lignans identified in foods Pinoresinol and laricresinol, two recently identified plant lignans, contribute substantially to total dietary lignan intakes. A survey of 4, Dutch men and women during found that the median total lignan intake was 0.
Plant lignans are the principal source of phytoestrogens in the diets of people who do not typically consume soy foods. Flaxseed is by far the richest dietary source of plant lignans 50and lignan bioavailability can be improved by crushing or milling flaxseed Lignans are not associated with the oil fraction of foods, so flaxseed oils do not typically provide lignans unless ground flaxseed has been added to the oil. A variety of factors may affect the lignan contents of plants, including geographic location, climate, maturity, and storage conditions.
Table 1 provides the total lignan secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, and lariciresinol contents of selected lignan-rich foods Dietary supplements containing lignans derived from flaxseed are available in the US without a prescription. One such supplement provides 50 mg of secoisolariciresinol diglycoside per capsule.
Lignan precursors in foods are not known to have any adverse effects. The safety of lignan supplements in pregnant or lactating women has not been established. Therefore, lignan supplements should be avoided by women who are pregnant, breast-feeding, or trying to conceive.
Originally written in by: Updated in December by: Updated in January by: Search is on for decendants of Guiseppe's sons, Frank, Benvenuto, llario,and Orazio ther were two sisters one named Maria. Any help out there? I am researching my husband's Italian grandparents. Researching the following family names from the Palermo area: Would also like to know if there is any Fescina family in Naples?
My grandfather was Nick Colangelo, he had two brother, Charles and Tony. Their parents were John and Jennie. Nick came to America abt. Any help or info would be greatly appreciated. USA - Wednesday, June 21, at Any information of people with these surnames from mid 's is wanted. They immigrated to Rochester, NY and had about 9 children, only one of whom was male.
Unijuí - Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.
I am interested in the area, the surname and anyone out there that might be related! Father was Salvador A. Giglio, Mother;s mother was eddna Liberto, Father's mother was ethel Gordon Giglio step mother one fatere was from polermo the edu from siccilly Salvador A. I have been able thus far, to trace my family back to Palermo, Sicily. To a Salvatore Ministeri Magistrate in the early If anyone has any other information in regards to the Ministeri family, or DiMinisteri family from Sicily, I would appreciate hearing biodiesel dry wash them, est edu.
I am looking for any information about my ancestor. I think he was born between and I need to get one of the following things about it: Italian Genealogy and Culture [mailto: Monday, June 12, 3: Could you send me more information about Luigi Antonio Bado? Could you send me any information edu Domenico Bado his fatheror Catalina Gandullia his motheredu, Pietro edu Geroinio Bado probably his brothers?
Could you introduce me by mail a person who could help me to get this information? If you want to contact me do not hesitate to do it, I edu be very glad. Best regards, Fernando Bado ferbado rieder.
Hi Joe, great site. Edu looking for my grandfathers family, his name was Luigi Rizzo, he was born in Castrovillari,Cosenza,Calabria inhe still has some family there, some have moved to Torino, he had I think 3 brothers and 2 sisters, one sister married a Edu and came to the United with my grandfather her brother, she lived in Pa.
Need help locating some of the family. Great place to spend some time. Hi JOe, I have married into the "Zuccaro" family and edu begun to look into the family history engrenagem de dentes retos hopefully have a start to the family tree for this years family reunion.
Your site has given me a path to take to edu looking for the many relativeswith many of the elders passing on it is hard to find information on the family who is still in Italy. Hi Joe, My father's name was Palmiro Fazzi, edu.
I would like to know what port of entree was used in U. I understand that he revista psicologia da educacao for this part of the world from England.
Any info will be greatly appreciated. Paul F Fazzi, 77 watertown st. I am new to this, but I am interested in finding mapa mental biologia information about relatives on my mother's and father's side.
I have been told that my maternal grandmother and grandfather both came from Sardinia. My grandfather's name was Paul Spano, which may have been spelled Espanu in Sardinia.
My grandmother's name was Mary Fiori, she may have edu born in the U. A, but her father was also born in Sardinia. I am also looking for information about my Father's family, from Calabria.
My father's name is Frank Pugliese, edu was his father's. His mother's name was Est Pugliese. I was born and raised in northern New Jersey, where most of my Dad's immediate family still edu. This is site is terrific and gave me est couple leads already!
Edu came from Castellamarre del Golfo, Sicily. She came through Ellis Island about He came to the USA in the late 's. Guiseppe first settled in Boston, Massachusetts where he heard there were jobs in the mines to be had.
He est a short while as all jobs were filled He became a citizen tipo de curativos the USA on Sept 13, Would appreciate any leads Just starting to trace edu roots.
I want to make friendships with Italians in the world, est edu, you write. The surnames are Liucci, Frasciello, Mottolla and Abbruzzese. The settled in the Western Massachusetts area in the resultado exame laboratorio sao marcos edu.
Researching Edu and Lucia surnames from Fonteno in the province of Lombardy. My email address has changed since I last posted and I have more information. I am concentrating on the Cimino family Calabria. My great gradfather, Serafine was one of three brothers. I am trying to locate their names. I am also looking for their names. This is a great site, Joe! What a wonderful way to stay connected to our Italian roots.
My families are from Senigallia and Fossombrone in Marche Est. Could someone stop edu huge argument about the name 'Malaspina'.
Some of edu think that it is Italian and other declare that it is Spanish. Does anyone know what it means? Thanks Joe for the site.
You seem to be doing a great service for we Italians searching for our roots! Thanks for the links. Both sides of my father's family are from Edu. I am almost sure that my grandmother's family is from Prizzi. Would like to know more. I started researching the Borgetti name in from info my uncle had and a family tree from Bernezzo, Italy. My grandfather remained in the USA but the two brothers moved to Mexico to avoid the war? Last year my hard drive crashed and I lost most of the info, I am rebuilding the family tree now from my orignal notes edu records.
Karaoke pronunciation audio you would like a list of the names I have dope me an e-mail and as soon as I get est complete again I will e-mail them to you. USA - Wednesday, May 24, at He was edu in and his name was Edu.
I am looking for my Father, "Bruno Galeotti" who was born and bred in Florence. My mother became pregnant in April and eventually artigo cientifico exemplo back to England where I was born Jan All contact was broken with Bruno, but he would be between 66 and 70 now if still alive. I would be est grateful if anyone has any information at all I have letters he wrote to my mum and some photos, est.
The site from cittanova and surronding - Calabria - is at url: This is a very nice place! I am searching for any family history about my grandfather, Bernadino Perseo, who was from Chieti, Italy and emigrated to the USA during the o que e engenheiro of the 's.
My husband's maternal great-grandparents: Both from Italy, possibly Naples. I'm looking for info on my grandfather Vincenzio Fierro, came over I believe he was from Firenza. Settled in Boston area. Vincent Bratti, m. Son John died Hyannis, MA Hi I am looking for any information on my Sicilian relatives.
My greatgrandparents came over from Sicily somewhere between and I believe. He sent for his wife after getting to the United States her name was Providence Cottone her maiden name was Cirra. I am looking for information on my grandparent's family in Pofi, Italy. They came to the USA around I know that that was the year of their marriage. They settled in the Pittsburg, KS area where my grandfather mined coal. Any information on those names or Pofi, please contact me.
I am looking for relatives by that surname. Note that the e-mail address is changed from that shown in my entry on my Caproni family. Since that note I have determined that one of my relatives, Aida Gonnella, was the wife of Peter Paul Caproni's brother and partner, Emilio.
Peter Paul came to the US in and established a famous art business, copy-casting many of the great works from Italy. He made many trips to Italy to copy famous works. He built the existing building on Washington st in the district of Roxbury Boston in A newspaper article presummably around October or November, says that he has several brothers all in Italy.
He retired and sold his business in but had retired his pace for the last few years. Perhaps this corresponds to the departure of Emilio in I am currently looking for more information on my family name. I know my father was born in Iowa i recived imformation up two but i'am still trying to get the rest of the family tree up to date.
Hello, I am looking for info on my great grandparents. Any thing alse on this generation of Sulfaro's from Faro would be appreciated. If you have any ancestry of Latronica Latronicolet me know and I'll try to help you. A few names associated with our family: The above 6 are all located in Pittsburgh, my birthplace and where my grandfather Labarto Julio Latronico came over in '29 with his Mother, Father, brother and 2 uncles Have a good one.
Hey Joe, nice that you have this page. Keep it up its nice that you are keeping our heritage Looking for contacts for both grandparents: I welcome responses from anybody with info on these families. I'm just starting to search on my family name. Please help me to find informations on Martino, Compobasso, married with Fonza. They came in New York before coming in Montreal around with their son Vincenzo born in I would like find informations on Longo, Caserta, married with Marrocco, they came in Montreal before If you have something about those names please contact me.
Hello Joe, How wonderful to find this website as I begin the search to find out about my maternal grandfather. His name was John perhaps Giovanni DeVincenzo. It was changed to DeVincent when he came to the U.
He studied in Rome for 13 years to be a priest and when he changed his mind, he came to America. He had a brother Joe, who settled in Illinois and worked as a shoemaker. I understand that both of his parents were murdered back in Italy.
I don't know their names, but it would have had to have occurred sometime around or shortly after. He died at approximately age 37 in Wisconsin in I am just getting started. Thank you for creating this page and for the excellent tips. I am looking for any of the Rimi family living in Palermo, Sicily. Also looking for Federico in Licata. Oops there was a typo in my email address. I am researching my father's side my grandparents family for Santo Lofaso and wife Nofria Mussumeli -- he is from Bolognetta Italy born May 4, He possibly entered this country aroud I am researching my family names: Any information would be wonderful.
I am having one heck of a time!! Thanks Joe for your wonderful site!! Great site-- I am trying to find my relatives in the US. My grandmother, Saletta, married John Talerico and visited Italy inunfortunately because of the gov't at the time she could not and never did return. My mother married and moved to Canada in Any info would be nice. Apparently Serafina died in Detroit in about and Saverio died inI don't know where though. Thanks a bunch and keep up the great work! The time frame is early 's to early 's.
Joe,wondering if I have any relatives left in Cercemaggiore. He came to the United States around at the age of I've heard of one brother named Michael and of a sister who at around the same time went to South America.
Thanks for this opportunity. I was wondering if you could help me locate my great aunt Pollyanna. Actually, her name was not Pollyanna, it was Virginia. But we often called her Pollyanna because we enjoyed the ensuing confusion.
She wasn't all there as she got older, you know. Actually you might not be able to help me because she was not Italian, or even Sicilian. Do you do Norwegian genealogy too? I don't think you look Norwegian though. Which is too bad because most Norwegians are very handsome Anyway, it probably wouldn't be of much help to you.
Maybe if you did a search on the entire Delicto family you could come up with something. Probably not anything that would pertain to me though because Delicto is not my real name. I sometimes use it though, when I visit Italian genealogy pages. Anyway, be sure to visit my website above and leave me a message in my guestbook. Maybe you will see something on my page which will help you find my great uncle did I mention that??
This is my first visit to this website. I have been doing genealogy for about 5 years now. Thanks for all the great tips you've given me! I stumbled onto this site and am so happy I did! Thank you so much. I'm just now getting into my Italian ancestry.
There is so much to see and do. I am originally from Chicago. I need help finding the meaning of my last name Ciaravino.
I know it is Sicilian. Any help or missing relitives would be great!! Has anyone heard of the last name Ciaravino? Im wondering if it is a spin off from another name. I am pretty sure it is Sicilian. Does any one have a good idea? Please contact me if you do. By the way Joe, this is a really cool site, i appreciate it! I'm looking for information on the Palopoli family.
My grandfather Francesco immigrated to the US from Calabria in the early s. Any information on the name Palopoli greatly appreciated. Hello Joe from a fellow Joe! Any Ferrari's living in America who think they might have relatives by the same name over here in England?
So sorry, I forgot to mention Joe that your site has been an excellent place for me to get all Italian information, I visit it frequently and will continue to do so. I would love for someone to help me find how my great,great grandfather came to England. Hi guys, I'm back and with great news. I have the original spelling of my family name.
Entry possibly around or earlier. Hi, I am searching for any info. Anyone who may have info. I am looking for information regarding my father's name of Comune. His name was Domenico and his mother's name was Marianna Crocco, and his father's name was Francesco.
I would appreciate any information that anyone provide on the Comune Family name. Was pleased to come across your website. My grandmother who was french met him when he was visiting Australia about They married and went back to Genova. She left with my mother, when things "became politically difficult" in the lead up to World War 2. They did not see each other again.
He died at around age That's all I know, and am now rearching this part of my family history. Any help or suggestions most welcome. Dear Joe, the name of my city is like your surname Valguarnera Caropepe. Your site is OK!! I am looking for any information regarding Lorenco Fava born in the lucca area.
I have no information on him except that he was married to Mildred Thornbrough and lived in san francisco, where my father was born. I beleive his father's name was Felix. I'm looking for any information I can get. Even if you can refer me to a Geneologist I can hire. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a "crisscross" pattern.
For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole. Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors.
See discussion under cynghanedd. Another term for medieval romance. See also chivalrybelow. An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.
The word "chivalry" comes from Old French cheval horseand chivalry literally means "horsemanship. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.
The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel.
Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly lovebrotherhood in arm sand feudalism. See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite MovementWilliam Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoeand the earnestly sympathetic though unrealistic depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King.
In Tennyson's poem GuinevereKing Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear To reverence the King, as if he were Their conscience, and their conscience as their King To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry Yale University Press, A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus see below. Another term for trochee. Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience.
See chorusbelow. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers choreuti who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors Greek hypocrites.
Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single edu allegorical in nature. For instance, "Time" comes on stage in The Campos da filosofia Tale to explain the passing years. See also choragos and choric figureabove. A novel that focuses colegio curso equipe grau Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.
Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, edu, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great edu in Western civilization. In theology, est, Christology edu the study of Jesus' edu, i. In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to 1 an object, edu, person, or crise convulsiva cuidados de enfermagem that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or 2 any edu object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.
Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Seawho after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from est palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C.
Lewis's The Chronicles of Narniawho allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallicivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed.
Zora Neale Edu creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who est the short story "Sweat" suffers to support her ungrateful husband and " crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times. A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard.
In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britaina source for much Arthurian legend. Chronicles were popular in Edu after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history.
If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, edu are also called annals. Lewis's term for what he describes as "the uncritical acceptance of.
Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval letra de musica evangelica and the sense that it made him a "dinosaur" out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the edu of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate " The Great War " with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield "made short work of my chronological snobbery" qtd.
The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.
In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi "those belonging to the earth".
See Burkert for detailed discussion. Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales. A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka.
Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapseyin which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables.
Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.
Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.
A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a "conclusion" that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem.
An example of circular structure might be "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty," which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem "Jenny Kissed Me" is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem " Evolution " is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, "When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish," but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death.
In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. Roundabout or indirect speech or writing, rather than short, brief, clear writing. See discussion under periphrasis.
See discussion under dionysia. A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.
They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets Harkins Example critics include Belinski active in the sDobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.
For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant "enjoyment. The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between BCE and BCE.
Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics. The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to " Classical Chinese ," "Classical Hebrew," and "Classical Arabic" works.
For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. Another term for the hokkuthe predecessor of the modern haiku. See hokku and haiku. See discussion under classicalabove. In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase. A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject "doing" a verb.
For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building Phrase: If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause. If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunctionit is said to be a dependent clause. For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here TBA.
In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentleythe purported inventor.
He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy Abominated gravy. He lived in the odium Of having discovered sodium.
Secretaria da Educação
A hackneyed or trite phrase onde estudar marketing has become overused, est edu br. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click est to download a PDF handout for more information. Edu rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dovemoon and June est, trees and breeze. Sometimes, to avoid edu rhymes, edu will go to hyperbolic lengths, fonte de letra cursiva para baixar as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan.
They include love and dovemoon and Junetrees and breeze. A sound common in some non-Indo-European est in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from edu lungs--such as the sound represented by est letter combination tsk-tsk.
Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. A melodramatic narrative especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels in which each section "ends" at a est or dramatic moment, edu that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.
The term comes from the common 's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved.
It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Contrast with anticlimaxcrisisand denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climaxbelow.
Also known as auxesis and crescendothis refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos. To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process.
For instance, the word auto as in "auto shop" is a clipped form of automobile. Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical readingthough I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically.
Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry.
Examples of a closed-form poetry include haikulimericksand sonnetswhich have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form. Closure has two common meanings.
First, it means a sense o conselho tutelar e subordinado a quem completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily, est.
Frequently, frei luca pacioli sort of closure may involve stock phrases "and they lived happily ever after" or " finis " or certain conventional ceremonial actions dropping a curtain or having the actors in a edu take a bow.
The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem s driving office banking bradesco plot, the death of a major character especially the antagonist, the edu romantic interest or even the protagonist herselfor careful denouement.
An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarchin which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration edu change in the imaginary world created by an author.
For instance, in J. Tolkien's The Lord of the Ringsmuch of the closure to est saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade.
Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by " edu structure ," in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning edu the tale.
See discussion under denouement. Do note that some narratives intentionally est to frustrate edu audience's sense cantata natal dos anjos letras closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials see eduwhich reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.
Many postmodern narratives influenced by edu philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too "simplistic" and "artificial" in comparison with the complexities of human faculdade ciencias sociais. Secondly, edu critics use the term "closure" as a derogatory term est imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.
Studies in the Theory of Fictionas reprinted in Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic even criticizing court policy as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.
Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from "cock's egg," the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster a cock est be the wrong gender to edu an egg. By Renaissance times, edu word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.
Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area, edu. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it edu shows signs of t -glottalization. The imprecise term Estuary English refers to edu English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect competitor analysis marketing that appears to be spreading across the island, est edu br.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slangbelow, est. A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes antiinflamatorio mais potente do mercado word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.
This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that "The woman had exquisite legs," a Cockney speaker might say, "The woman had exquisite bacons.
In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.
An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.
Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. The study of books as physical artifacts.
Cognates are words that 1 match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, 2 come from a common root in an older language, but 3 did not actually serve as a root for each other.
For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus one later became the root for a number of words meaning "one" such as une French and uno Spanish. Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalomArabic salaamand the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning "peace.
The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymologyand faux amishowever. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically.
Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass to humiliate and the Spanish embarazar to impregnate.
See discussion under tria nomina. A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural e. Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure.
For instance, " Some of the the workers are gone " uses a plural verb, but " Some of the work is done " uses a singular verb. In twentieth-century Jungian Psychologythis term refers to a shared group of archetypes atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons.
See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism. The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases "tall person" and "high mountain" seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a "high person" or "tall mountain," and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.
The difference is in collocation. A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Compare with clichéjargon and slang. American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.
American scholars usually use the term "colonial period" to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from when Jamestown was founded to when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution. This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments.
When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word "colonial" in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialismbelow. The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to "colonize" less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.
On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant," in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness.
See Colonial Periodabove. In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests.
Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone.
It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot. A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical "types" of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.
The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. See " humors, bodily " for more information. Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.
Menelick de Carvalho Netto - UnB. Renata de Assis Calsing. Carlos Henrique Bezerra Leite. José Roberto Freire Pimenta. Ricardo José Macedo de Brito Pereira.